Rise and fall of behaviorism

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    hillary
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    default Rise and fall of behaviorism

    مُساهمة من طرف hillary في الإثنين 7 سبتمبر 2009 - 12:33

    Rise and fall of behaviorism

    Partly in reaction to the
    subjective and introspective nature of Freudian psychodynamics, and its
    focus on the recollection of childhood experiences, during the early
    decades of the 20th century, behaviorism gained popularity as a guiding
    psychological theory. Founded by John B. Watson and embraced and
    extended by Edward Thorndike, Clark L. Hull, Edward C. Tolman, and
    later B.F. Skinner), behaviorism was grounded in studies of animal
    behavior. Behaviorists shared the view that the subject matter of
    psychology should be operationalized with standardized procedures which
    led psychology to focus on behavior, not the mind or consciousness.They
    doubted the validity of introspection for studying internal mental
    states such as feelings, sensations, beliefs, desires, and other
    unobservables. In "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" (1913),
    Watson argued that psychology "is a purely objective experimental
    branch of natural science," that "introspection forms no essential part
    of its methods", and that "the behaviorist recognizes no dividing line
    between man and brute." Skinner rejected hypothesis testing as a
    productive method of research, considering it to be too conducive to
    speculative theories that would promote useless research and stifle
    good research.

    Behaviorism reigned as the dominant model in psychology throughout the
    first half of the 20th century, largely due to the creation of
    conditioning theories as scientific models of human behavior, and their
    successful application in the workplace and in fields such as
    advertising and military science.

    However, it became increasingly clear that, although it had made some
    important discoveries, behaviorism was deficient as a guiding theory of
    human behavior.Noam Chomsky helped spark the cognitive revolution in
    psychology through his review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, in
    which Chomsky challenged the behaviorist approach to the study of
    behavior and language dominant in the 1950s. In his theory of
    Generative Grammar Chomsky demonstrated that language could not be
    learned purely from conditioning, because people could produce
    sentences unique in structure and meaning that couldn't possibly be
    generated solely through experience of natural language — implying that
    there must be internal states of mind that behaviorism rejected as
    illusory. Similarly, work by Albert Bandura showed that children could
    learn by social observation, without any change in overt behavior, and
    so must be accounted for by internal representations




      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الأربعاء 19 ديسمبر 2018 - 6:54